Aksubaevsky district is an administrative-territorial unit and a municipal entity within the Republic of Tatarstan of the Russian Federation. It is located in the south of the republic, in the Zakamsky economic region. The administrative center is the urban-type settlement Aksubaevo. The only region in the republic where the Chuvash population prevails over the Tatar and Russian.
Aksubaevsky municipal district belongs to the group of districts where the agricultural sector of the economy prevails. The manufacturing sector is represented by food processing and building materials enterprises, as well as a number of small manufacturing enterprises. Six oil fields have been discovered in the region, but in most cases they are hard-to-recover, high-sulfur oil.
Aksubaevsky municipal district is located on a regional highway 180 km from Kazan, 58 km from the Nurlat railway station and 85 km from the pier of the city of Chistopol. Has sufficient resources (non-metallic minerals, forest, land resources).
In 2015, the area of the district was 1439.2 km². It has common borders with Chistopolsky, Novosheshminsky, Cheremshansky, Nurlatsky and Alekseevsky regions of the republic. The center is an urban-type settlement Aksubaevo (in pre-revolutionary sources, the name of the local church is referred to as Trinity).
The climate of the region is moderately continental. It is characterized by warm, humid summers (the average air temperature in July is 18.6 ° C) and moderately cold winters with a stable snow cover.
The area is located in the east of the Zavolzhskaya lowland, on the weakly dissected by the valleys of small rivers. The prevailing relief heights are 160-180 meters; the lowest height is 74 m (water line on the Bolshaya Sulcha river), the highest – 223 m (on the watershed of the Bolshoy Cheremshan and Sheshma rivers). A significant part of the territory is located between the Malaya Sulcha and Maliy Cheremshan rivers in the upper reaches of the Bolshaya Sulcha and its right tributary Malaya Sulcha, flowing from east to west.
Coat of arms and flag
In a pitch-shaped field broken by azure (blue, light blue), greens and scarlet (red) – a golden shining sun (without a face image), surrounded by three silver pigeons flying towards it, visible from the back and touching the ends of their wings (one and two ).
The coat of arms was approved on December 20, 2005 and entered into the State Heraldic Register of Russia. It reflects the cultural, historical and economic characteristics of the area. Three silver doves touching their wings and surrounding the sun symbolizes the peaceful and harmonious coexistence of three peoples on the territory of the region: Chuvash, Tatars and Russians. Silver is a symbol of purity, perfection, peace and mutual understanding. The golden sun shows the Aksubaevsky district as an original land, rich in traditions, whose inhabitants preserve the memory of their ancestors and take care of their descendants. The sun is a traditional symbol of fertility, truth, selflessness, glory. The tricolor field symbolizes the directions of the region’s economy: oil, grain growing, animal husbandry. Simultaneously, they show the agricultural annual cycle. Gold is a symbol of harvest, wealth, stability, respect and intelligence. Red means courage, strength, work, beauty. Azure is a symbol of honor, nobility, spirituality. Green is a symbol of nature, health, life growth, rebirth. The flag is designed on the basis of the coat of arms, it is a rectangular panel with a width to length ratio of 2: 3.
It is known that the first people on the territory of the region lived in open settlements located on low coastal terraces of the river, were engaged in cattle breeding and agriculture, they left behind numerous mounds in the fields. One of the kurgans is located at the entrance to Asubaevo from the side of Chistopol, on the border of the Aksubaevsky and Starokiremetsky state farms. Other sites of ancient people discovered within the Askubaevsky region are located near the villages of Zarya and Aktash – their age is about 30 thousand years. To the monuments of log architecture at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. e. include the Novouzeevsky burial ground, the Starotimoshkinsky kurgan, the Nizhnebalandinskoe settlement and the Belovskoe settlement.
The Tatar Sunchelei settlement (“Kyz Tau” or Maiden Mountain) dates back to the 7th century – the resettlement of peoples deep into Europe from Asia due to the invasion of the Huns. Archaeological monuments of this culture in the region have been found in three places: the Tatar Suncheleevskoe settlement. In the region there are found iron agricultural tools of the middle of the 1st millennium AD, belonging to the Imenkov tribes. At the end of the 8th century, the Bulgar tribes settled in the region.
The territory of the Aksubaevsky region was part of the Volga Bulgaria, later – the Golden Horde. Aksubaevsky district was located in the very center of the Volga Bulgaria. The capital of this state – Bilyarsk – was located about 25-30 km from the district. The era of the Volga Bulgaria is the most populated period in the history of the region. Scientists and local ethnographers in the territory of our region discovered: 11 settlements, 67 settlements, 1 burial ground, 5 locations of gravestones with epigraphs and 1 treasure of things. The invasion of the troops of Khan Batu in 1236 became an important milestone that changed the structure of the settlement of the region. Since that time, the number of settlements has been reduced. In the Golden Horde period, only small parts of fortifications and settlements continued to exist in the region. Cities that had a solid economic foundation and military strength were restored or continued to exist. According to scientists, the Baren-Ruska, Novomokshinskoe Savgachevskoe settlement belongs to the two Bulgar periods.
The end of the XIV century – the beginning of the XV century was the next turning point, when in the process of the collapse of the Golden Horde there was another reduction in the number of settlements. After the invasion of Timur’s troops in 1361 and the increased frequency of ushkuiniks (1370, 1396, 1431), the bulk of the population migrated to more prosperous regions – the Predkamye and the Volga region. As a result of mass resettlement, these territories, which were previously considered the periphery of the Volga Bulgaria, became the central part of the new state formation – the Kazan Khanate.
Archaeological excavations of graves starting from the 10th century testify to a predominantly Muslim method of burial: they were not buried in coffins, head to the west, facing Mecca to the south. After the annexation of the Kazan Khanate to the Russian state after the campaigns of Ivan the Terrible, the widespread Christianization of the non-Russian peoples of the Trans-Kama region and the violent renaming began. According to historians, from 1740 to 1764 alone, 300 thousand pagan Chuvash became Christians.
In the Aksubaevsky district, a legend has been preserved about three brothers: Akspay, Ilderek and Endrus, who founded the villages of Aksubaevo, Ilderyakovo and Enoruskino. The village of Aksubaevo was founded in the second half of the 17th century. The surviving documents for 1771-1773 indicate that the village of Aksubaevo was part of the Staroibraykin volost of the Chistopol district of the Kazan province. At the end of the 18th century, the volost center was moved from Old Ibraikino to Aksubaevo – thus the Aksubaevskaya volost was formed.
Until 1920, the territory of the district belonged to the Chistopol district of the Kazan province, in 1920-1930 – to the Chistopol canton of the TASSR. The cantons were finally abolished in 1930, the Aksubaevsky district was formed on August 10, 1930. The boundaries and administrative divisions of the region have changed several times. So, on February 1, 1963, the district was liquidated, its territory was transferred to the Oktyabrsky district. But already on January 12, 1965, it was restored.
In the 1950s, an active policy of Russification of national peoples and the imposition of Russian languages through schools took place in the republic, which is why, in 1956, in the village of Aksubaevo, by directive from above, all Chuvash pedagogical schools were closed. The teaching of the Chuvash language and literature was restored only twenty years later.
According to the data of tear-off coupons of address sheets of arrival and departure in rural settlements in the 1980s previous years, it is clear that a significant part of the population tried to move to cities. At the same time, in the Aksubaevsky district, the percentage of population decline was significantly higher than in the republic as a whole. In general, this was due to poor social conditions. For example, in the district, the supply of pediatricians in 1985 was 0.6-1 people per 10 thousand of the population (in the RSFSR this ratio was 4.6 people). According to medical data, at that time almost half of the population (42%) were left without systematic medical supervision, which affected the high mortality rate of children under one year old who died at home.
In 1945, oil was found in the region, the estimated productivity of each well was about 10-20 tons per day.
After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Tatarstan made an attempt to secede from Russia and gain independence. In 1992, a referendum was held, as a result of which Tatarstan proclaimed state sovereignty. However, the region decided to remain part of Russia as a sovereign republic. At the same time, Tatarstan began to pursue an independent socio-economic policy, the regions within the republic received greater independence.
The region is characterized by the maximum share of the Chuvash population in Tatarstan and is the only region of the republic where the largest ethnic groups are neither Tatars nor Russians. At the beginning of 2013, 44.3% are Chuvash, 38.5% are Tatars, 16.6% are Russians and 0.6% are representatives of other nationalities.
In the Aksubaevsky municipal district, there is 1 urban and 20 rural settlements and 79 settlements in their composition. 34.26% of the district’s population live in urban conditions (Aksubaevo town). Since May 2008, the head of the district is the Honored Worker of Agriculture of the Republic of Tatarstan, a native of the village of Industrial Kamil Kamalovich Gilmanov. He worked as an agronomist-meliorator, from 2005 to 2008 he headed the Vamin branch – the Vamin Aksu agricultural firm.
State of the art
Aksubaevsky district is among the outsiders of the municipalities of Tatarstan. The economic complex of the Aksubaevsky district was formed under the influence of a number of factors, including the peculiarities of its geographical position and the historical development of the territory. The region is part of the Zakamsk economic zone and is located in the southern part of the Republic of Tatarstan. In economic terms, this zone is an industrial-agrarian region, focused on oil production, precision engineering, as well as the production and processing of agricultural products. The indicator of investment in fixed assets per capita in Aksubaevsky district is one of the lowest in the Zakamsky economic zone of Tatarstan, 4 times lower than the average republican one.
Useful natural resources of the region – forest and land. Brick clay and oil are mined in the region. Six local deposits: Eryklinskoe, Suncheleevskoe, Demkinskoe, Myudovskoe, Ibraikinskoe, Ivinskoe. Small oil companies are engaged in their development, including Nurlatneft (subsidiary of Tatneft), Ritek, Tatekh, Tatnefteprom (operating since 1999, developing 16 fields, in 2018 received a number of republican economic awards – “Pride and Hope of the National Economy”, “Company of the Year”), “TNGK-Development”. Small oil company “Tateh” has been operating in the region for over 20 years. The company was created to solve the environmental problems associated with oil production. She used the technology to capture light oil fractions. TATNEFT transferred two fields to Tatekh for development – first the Onbiyskoye in the Zainsky region, and in 1999 – the Demkinskoye in Aksubaevsky. In 2010, TATNEFT purchased from the American company Texneft Inc. Tateh, which they owned on an equal footing since 1990, is said to be sold because of the low production rate of wells – 2.7 tons per day.
Aksubaevskoe forestry operates on the territory of two more districts – Novosheshminsky and Chistopolsky. In addition to him, the timber industry is engaged in “Aksubaevsky forestry”.
The work of agriculture and the processing of agricultural raw materials is provided by PMK-Melioration, a large processing enterprise Aksubaevsky butter-making plant (owner until 2016 – Vamin). Aksstroy, URSZh are working in the construction industry, and the production of building materials – expanded clay concrete, arbalite blocks, paving stones – has been established. The district annually commissions 11 thousand square meters of housing.
According to the data for 2015, agricultural land occupies 91.9 thousand hectares, including arable land – 84.5 thousand hectares, acidic soils occupy from 60 to 80% of arable land, the soil is poorly provided with potassium. Winter rye, spring wheat, oats, peas, barley, sugar beets, sunflowers, rapeseed, corn, potatoes, lupines and soybeans are cultivated. Of the 5400 thousand tons of grain harvested in the republic in 2020, 122.9 tons fall on the Aksubaevsky district, the average yield of the previous year was 32.4 centners / ha. Meat and dairy cattle breeding and pig breeding are developed. So, in 2010, a dairy complex for 1600 heads was built in the district.
As of 2015, 51 agricultural enterprises operated in the region. Among the largest agricultural enterprises are Aksu Agro, Agrofirma Aksubaevskaya, Aktay, Kolos, Set Ile-Aksu, Aksu Agro, Sulcha and 45 other peasant farms, of which about 30 – family farms.
Agrofirm “Aktay”, among other things, is engaged in breeding trotting horses. In 2016, the horses of the farm set two All-Russian records and were repeatedly included in the list of the best horses in Russia. In the village of Staroye Mokshino there is a “Mushroom shop of the KFH Samarenkin A.K.” for oyster mushroom breeding, with an area of about 1.5 thousand square meters and a capacity of up to 6 tons. In addition to mushrooms, the farm produces mycelium substrates, and there is an onion drying workshop.
According to the report of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Republic of Tatarstan, in 2019, Aksubaevsky District attracted 742.3 million rubles of investments (in addition to budget funds and small business), a year earlier this amount was 439.8 million. According to the Committee of the Republic of Tatarstan on socio-economic monitoring, the region’s investments in the region’s fixed capital across the full range of economic entities in the first half of 2020 amounted to 1.2 billion rubles, or 0.5% of the total investment in the republic. Urbanists note the strong economic influence of the city of Almetyevsk and its agglomeration.
The district has an industrial site “Garant”, built in 2016 with private money. The park is designed for 45 seats, now there are three residents on the site who prepare bread and flour confectionery, make corrugated board for fences, roofs, and house cladding.
Highways 16K-0098 “Chistopol – Aksubaevo – Nurlat” and 16K-0131 “Nurlat – Kuzaykino (P239)” pass through the district.
The area is located in the southern part of the forest-steppe zone, which is characterized by linden-oak and linden forests with an admixture of elm and maple. Larger forest tracts are preserved in the northern and northeastern parts of the region in the basin of the Malaya Sulcha river. Secondary aspen and birch forests with the participation of broad-leaved species have formed at the sites of felling. In the extreme east, there is a broad-leaved pine forest. The total forest cover of the district is 20.3-21% of the area. The protected area includes the Keremetyevsky forest and part of the Bilyarsky hunting reserve, organized in 1967 to strengthen the protection of the hunting and commercial fauna: elk, wild boar, roe deer, capercaillie, hazel grouse, black grouse. The fauna is represented by the inhabitants of the forest and steppe zones. So, fox, elk, wild boar, white hare, European hare, squirrel, gopher, lynx, marten and others live in the forests; near water bodies – beaver, muskrat, mink; in reservoirs, various types of fish. More than 100 species of birds nest or migrate in the area, including wood grouse, black grouse, partridge, heron, gray crane, spotted eagle and other birds. The region is inhabited by marals brought from the Altai Territory.
On the territory of Aksubaevsky district there are three natural monuments of 1978: the rivers Bolshaya Sulcha, Maly Cheremshan and Malaya Sulcha.
- Small Cheremshan (length 188.1 km, source – in Novosheshminsky region, mouth – in Ulyanovsk region) flows along a wavy plain (dominant heights of 120-180 m), slightly dissected by valleys of tributaries, gullies and ravines, with outcrops to the surface of the Permian rocks of the Kazan and Tatar layers, mixed natural forests in the lower part of the basin, agricultural lands and floodplain meadows.
- Bolshaya Sulcha (length 117.2 km, source – near the village of Amirovo, Cheremshan region, mouth – near the village of Saldakaevo, Nurlatsky district) is of economic importance, used by agricultural enterprises.
- Malaya Sulcha (length 66.2 km, source – near the village of Sulche-Bash, mouth – near the village of Karasa) passes through the territory, a weakly dissected network of ravines and gullies, covered with forest vegetation.
In the area there are well-equipped springs in the villages of Novoye Ibraikino, Old Mokshino, the villages of Belovka, Novaya Balanda and Cheryomushka.
In 2011, due to the rupture of the Ritek oil pipeline, 1.2 hectares of arable land were withdrawn from circulation, and the company was fined 110 thousand rubles in total. In May 2018, residents of the district complained about oil pollution of the Tarsa River, which could have happened due to a dam break during the spring release of water. Rosprirodnadzor officially denies the accident. In 2019, the Vamin-Tatarstan butter factory dumped waste into the Malaya Sulcha river, the violation was repeatedly identified and ordered to be eliminated.
In the field of education, there are 15 preschool institutions, 11 primary, 7 incomplete secondary, 14 secondary schools (including three gymnasiums), a lyceum, a technical school of universal technologies in the district. Institutions of additional education are represented by a center for extracurricular activities, a children’s art school, and a children’s and youth sports school. The district also helps children from the Fedorovsky boarding school, the Aksubaevsky home of mercy and the Dream social shelter for children and adolescents.
In the district health system, there are a central district hospital and a polyclinic, the Staroibraykinskaya district hospital, three outpatient clinics and 53 feldsher-obstetric points. The sports infrastructure includes 77 sports facilities, including the Yunost universal sports complex and the Dolphin swimming pool, a hippodrome, a chess club and a carting club.
In the field of culture, there are a district recreation center, 28 rural houses of culture and 25 club institutions, a central, children’s and 38 public libraries. There are three museums in the region: the local history museum in Aksubaevo (opened in 1987, more than 2500 storage units, including ethnographic and household items, tools, documents, books, photographs and paintings), the House-Museum of Hasan Tufan in the village of Staraya Kiremet (opened in 1990, more than 2300 items of storage, includes archival documents, photographs, in one of the rooms the interior of a peasant house of the early XX century was recreated) and the Gaziz Kashapov Museum in the village of Novoye Uzeevo (opened in 1992, 775 items of storage – manuscripts, photographs and works writer, as well as numerous household items).
The multinational area is represented by folk theaters and folklore groups. The local newspaper “Selskaya nov” (“Avyl taunary”, “Yal purnase”) is published in the region in Russian, Tatar and Chuvash languages.
Religious organizations are represented by 28 workers’ mosques and six churches, some of them have the status of architectural monuments:
- Amirzyan Mosque in Karasa village
- three mosques in the village of Novoye Ibraikino (including the architectural monument – the Cathedral Mosque, built in 1909)
- two mosques in the village of Novoe Uzeevo (including the Second Cathedral Mosque built in 1911)
- four mosques in the village of Old Ibraikino
- three mosques in the village of Starye Kiyazly (the former Third Cathedral Mosque of 1905 was lost along with the building of a madrasah and two mektebes)
- Mosque “Muradulla” in the village of Tatarskoe Suncheleevo
- Church of the Apostle Andrew the First-Called in the village of Emelkino
- Kazan-Mother of God Church in the village of Russian Kiremet, built in 1887 by the project of the Kazan architect A. E. Ostovsky at the expense of the landowner N. A. Zhukova
- Trinity Church in the village of Old Mokshino
- Church of John the Baptist in the village of Old Uzeevo
- Church of the Ascension in the village of Suncheleevo, built on the foundations of an old church in 1796
- a mosque and a church in honor of St. Theodosius of Totem in Aksubaevo
- On the site of the latter in 1749, there was the Aksubaevsky parish with the attached Trinity Church, in 1800 a new building with a side-altar was erected in the name of the Monk Theodosius of Totma, 55 years later the church burned down, a chapel was temporarily put in its place, and in 1864 was erected a new wooden church with a bell tower. In 1891, the building was damaged during another strong fire that destroyed the center of the village, in 1898, a stone five-domed cathedral was laid with donations from landowners M. Novoseltsev, V. Markovnikov, I. Zhukova and ordinary residents, erected and consecrated in 1914. Already in the 1930s, as part of the Soviet struggle against religiosity, the cathedral was dismantled, and a house of culture, a Chuvash pedagogical school, a junior high school, a shop, and a communal bathhouse were built from bricks. The veneration cross of the Ascension Church is located near the village of Novoye Ilderyakovo.
About 200 archaeological monuments dating back to the Bronze Age, the Imenkovo culture (Tatar Suncheleevskoe settlement, “Kyz Tau”, or “Maiden Mountain”), the period of the Volga Bulgaria, the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate were identified on the territory of the region. Mounds and kurgan groups are located near Aksubaevo, near the village of Vasilyevka, near the villages of Sargachevo, Old Uzeevo, Takhtala, Cheryomushka and others. Monuments of log architecture are represented by the Novouzeevsky burial ground, Starotimoshkinsky burial mound, Nizhnebalandinsky and Belovsky settlements.
The regional cultural heritage sites include the following objects: a complex of buildings of a technical vocational school (where the boys studied blacksmithing, locksmithing and turning, here from 1936 to 1941 the Chuvash writer and teacher Efrem Vasilyevich Elliev lived and worked) and a two-story building of the land bank in Aksubaev (opened in 1913, an architectural monument of republican significance), the buildings of the estate of Prince Khovansky (built in the 19th century) in the village of Russkaya Kiremet, Kazan Church of the Mother of God in the village of Dmitrievka, a monument to the poet Polorusov-Shelebi in the village of Belovka and others.
The following people were born and raised in the area:
- writers and poets: Nazip Dumavi, Nikolay Polorussov-Shelebi, Hasan Tufan, Efrem Yelliev, Mikhail Egorov (Seniel), Roza Tufitullova,
- professors and scientists: Rais Belyaev, Salam Alishev, Sergey Abrukov, designer of space rockets Vasily Piskarev, designer of underwater ballistic missiles Yuri Krainov, ethnographer Alexander Trofimov,
- Hero of the Soviet Union Grigory Romanov, Heroes of Socialist Labor Mikhail Mikheev, Leonty Petrov, Sharif Khafizov, General Said-Garey Gaifutdinov,
- statesmen: G. D. Danilov, D. N. Sadikov, M. F. Spiridonov, K. G. Yakovlev and others.